Tools and Resources to Research SARS-CoV-2 Infection(COVID-19)

COVID-19 - Accelerate Your Research to Find a Cure

Tools to Investigate SARS-CoV-2 Infection

COVID-19 is caused by the newly discovered coronavirus SARS CoV-2, previously called 2019-nCoV. It belongs to the Coronaviridae family and is broadly distributed in humans and other mammals. hCoV-229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1 are some of the known coronaviruses that cause mild respiratory diseases unlike SAR-CoV and MERS that cause severe to fatal respiratory diseases [1].

Why is SARS-CoV-2 spreading faster than its two ancestors? Why is SARS-CoV-2 lethal? Recent publications have shown that there are differences in their genome structure and immunological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The key markers involved in these interactions include Spike protein (S), Nucleocapsid (N), ACE-2 receptor, FURIN protease in addition to the cytokines.

Image 1: Coronavirus with Spike Image
Coronavirus with Spike

Spike Protein (S): SARS-CoV2 enters the cells through the Spike mediated interaction with the ECD domain of the ACE2 cell receptor. A recombinant fusion protein (RBD of Spike protein and ECD of membrane protein) can a great tool to investigate this interaction.

Learn more about the purified recombinant Spike Protein (S).


Image 2: TMPRSS2 Image
ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in Coronoa virus

Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2): This is a serine protease that cleaves and activates the viral spike glycoproteins which facilitates virus-cell membrane fusions. A recent study showed that SARS-CoV-2 needs both ACE2 receptor and serine protease TMPRSS2 for protein priming to enter the cell.[2]

Tools for analyzing TMPRSS2

  1. ORF clones
  2. Goat and Rabbit Polyclonal Antibodies
  3. CRISPR kits
  4. Unique controls

Image 3: Nucleocapsid NC Image
Corona virus structure

Nucleocapsid: The nucleocapsid phosphoprotein packages the viral genome into a helical ribonucelocapsid, thus playing a crucial role in viral self-assembly.

Tools for analyzing the Nucleocapsid

  1. Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein
  2. Biotinylated recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein
  3. SARS-CoV-2 N protein Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody

Image 4: ACE-2 Receptor Protein Image
ACE-2 Receptor Protein

ACE-2 receptor: ACE-2 is the host cell receptor responsible for mediating infection by SARS-CoV-2.

Tools for analyzing ACE-2 protein

  1. Human Recombinant Protein Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE2)
  2. ACE-2 specific Mouse Monoclonal Antibody
  3. ACE-2 Human ORF clones

Find out more about the additional ACE-2 specific tools here


Image 5: Furin Protein Image
ACE-2 Receptor Protein

Furin: It is a protease present in many human organs that recognizes and activates a specific site on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, thus facilitating a tighter binding to the ACE-2 receptor and might play a role in the higher infection rate [3].

How can you analyze Furin? Learn about the tools for analyzing Furin.


Image 6: IL2 Pathway Image
IL2 Pathway

Cytokines: Studies have shown a strong correlation between severity of the disease and concentrations of IL2, IL7, IL10, GCSF, MCP1 and TNF alpha [1].

Tools to analyze the 6 cytokines associated Cytokine Storm:
IL2 | IL7 | IL10 | GCSF | MCP1 | TNF alpha

References:

  1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6
  2. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/367/6483/1260
  3. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/367/6483/1260