Immuno Oncology Checkpoint Proteins

Comprehensive reagents for immuno oncology checkpoint proteins

Immuno oncology (I-O) is the one of the most exciting research areas in biomedical science. Since the early discovery of CTLA4/CD80 and PD1/PDL1 interactions, scientists continue to discover novel ligands involve in T-cell activity modulations. The research results have been quickly translated in bedside benefit as a growing list of immune blockade drugs gaining FDA approval and perform miracles in cancer patients.

One of the most promising approaches is to activate the therapeutic anti-tumor immunity through the blockade of immune checkpoints. Immune checkpoints refer to a plethora of inhibitory pathways hardwired into the immune system that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance and modulating the duration and amplitude of physiological immune responses in peripheral tissues in order to minimize collateral tissue damage.

It is now clear that tumors co-opt certain immune-checkpoint pathways as a major mechanism of immune resistance, particularly against T cells that are specific for tumor antigens. Because many of the immune checkpoints are initiated by ligand–receptor interactions, they can be readily blocked by antibodies or modulated by recombinant forms of ligands or receptors.

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) antibodies were the first of this class of immunotherapeutics to achieve US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Preliminary clinical findings with blockers of additional immune-checkpoint proteins, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), indicate broad and diverse therapeutic opportunities.

Listen to GENcast: Cancer Diagnostics and PD-L1

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Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory ligand–receptor interactions between a T cell and a dendritic cell, a tumor cell, and a macrophage, respectively, in the tumor microenvironment
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Tumor Related Immune Checkpoints and Targeted Cancer

Biomarker Based Companion Diagnostics are Enabling Precision

Best PDL1 IHC Antibodies from OriGene

OriGene offers a complete set of research tools for I-O research.

Click to view a complete product lists for that target.

Cellular responses T cell/Effector cells Antigen presenting cell /Tumor cells
Co-inhibitory PD-1/PDCD1/CD279 PD-L1/CD274 or PD-L2/PDCD1LG2
CTLA-4/CD152 CD80/B7/B7-1 or CD86
TIM-3/HAVCR2 Galectin-9/GAL9/LGALS9
VISTA/C10orf54 Unknown
Unknown B7-H3/CD276
Unknown B7-H4/VTCN1
A2AR Adenosine
Co-stimulatory CD28 CD80/B7/B7-1 or CD86
CD40L/CD154 CD40
CD137/4-1BB CD137L
CD27 CD70/CD27L

Currently Approved Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

FDA approval date Target Product name Drug name Class Company The current indications
2011, Mar 25 CTLA-4 Yervoy Ipilimumab IgG1, human BMS unresectable or metastatic melanoma
2014, Sep 4 PD-1 Keytruda Pembrolizumab IgG4, humanized Merck metastatic melanoma; non-small cell lung cancer;head and neck cancer
2014, Dec 22 PD-1 Opdivo Nivolumab IgG4, human BMS metastatic melanoma; non-small cell lung cancer; head and neck cancer
2016, May 18 PD-L1 Tecentriq Atezolizumab IgG1, humanized Roche lung cancer; urothelial cancer