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|This affinity purified antibody was prepared from whole rabbit serum produced by repeated immunizations with a synthetic peptide corresponding to an internal region of human ATR protein.|
|human, mouse, rat, monkey, dog, fish, Xenopus
||ELISA: 1:15,000 - 1:70,000, WB: 1:1,000 - 1:5,000
|0.02 M Potassium Phosphate, 0.15 M Sodium Chloride, pH 7.2|
|Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) and Rad 3-related protein (ATR) is a phosphatidyl-inositol kinase (PK)-related kinase which functions in response to DNA damage and repair as well as at DNA replication checkpoints during the cell cycle. ATR activates checkpoint signaling upon genotoxic stresses, such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light (UV), or DNA replication stalling, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. ATR is a member of the DNA-PK kinase family and is closely related to ATM and DNA-PK for which DNA stimulates the observed kinase activity. Chromosomal remodeling proteins have also been reported to associate with ATR complexes, including histone deacetylases (HDAC1, HDAC2 and CHD4). ATR is known to phosphorylate BRCA1, CHEK1, MCM2, RAD17, RPA2, SMC1 and TP53/p53 which collectively inhibit DNA replication and mitosis and promote DNA repair, recombination and apoptosis. ATR is a nuclear protein, but can also be found in PML nuclear bodies in certain cell types. ATR is recruited to chromatin during S-phase and redistributes to discrete nuclear foci upon DNA damage, hypoxia or replication fork stalling.
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Western blot using anti-ATR antibody shows detection of ATR in HeLa cell nuclear extract (lane 1). Lane 2 shows negligible staining after pre-incubation of antibody with the immunizing peptide (50 ?g peptide for 1 h at room temperature followed by centrifugation). A 4-8% gradient gel was used for separation. Goat serum was used at 5% for blocking. The arrowhead corresponds to 301 kDa ATR when compared to MW markers (Lane M). The primary antibody was used at a 1:1,400 dilution.