Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) is a nuclear protein and member of the steroid hormone receptor family. ER alpha possesses both DNA binding and ligand binding domains, and exerts a significant role in activating the transcription of certain genes (1). Ligand-dependent dimerization and phosphorylation both function to regulate the transcriptional activation of ER alpha (2). The ER is an important regulator of growth and differentiation in the mammary gland. Presence of ER in breast tumors indicates an increased likelihood of response to anti-estrogen (e.g. tamoxifen) therapy (3).
TGF Beta Signaling Pathway
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