Regulator of G-protein signaling 9 (RGS9) is a GTPase-activating protein. It enhances the time resolution of G protein signaling cascades by accelerating GTP hydrolysis of G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (1, 2). RGS9 deactivates the G proteins (transducins) in the rod and cone phototransduction cascades. It is anchored to photoreceptor membranes by the transmembrane protein R9AP (RGS9 anchor protein), which enhances RGS9 activity up to 70-fold (3). As a peripheral membrane protein, RGS9 is highly expressed in the caudate and putamen and lower levels are found in the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens and cerebellum. Defects in RGS9 are suggested as the cause of prolonged electroretinal response suppression, also known as bradyopsia (4).
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