The human T cell-specific transcription factor TCF-1 alpha plays a key role in the tissue-specific activation of the T cell receptor (TCR) C alpha enhancer and binds to pyrimidine-rich elements (5'-PyCTTTG-3') present in a variety of other T cell-specific control regions. TCF-1 alpha is currently unique among the newly emerging family of DNA-binding regulatory proteins that share the HMG motif in that it is a highly tissue-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor (1). TCF-1 alpha participates in the regulation of TCR alpha enhancer by facilitating the assembly of multiple proteins into a higher order nucleoprotein complex. The function of LEF-1 is dependent, in part, on the HMG domain that induces a sharp bend in the DNA helix, and on an activation domain that stimulates transcription only in a specific context of other enhancer-binding proteins (2). Constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a root cause of many colon cancers. Activation of this pathway is caused by genetic mutations that stabilize the beta-catenin protein, allowing it to accumulate in the nucleus and form complexes with any member of the lymphoid enhancer factor and T-cell factor family of transcription factors (referred to collectively as LEF/TCFs) to activate transcription of target genes (3).
Delta-Notch Signaling Pathway
TGF Beta Signaling Pathway
Wnt Signaling Pathway
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