The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM/CD56) is a homophilic binding glycoprotein belonging to immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. It is commonly found on the surface of neurons, NK cells, gilas, and neuroendocrine tissues, and it is involved in synaptic plasticity, neurodevelopment, and neurogenesis. NCAM mediates axon growth, fasciculation, and cell adhesion by homophilic and heterophilic interactions (1). Due to alternative splicing, at least 27 different isoforms of NCAM mRNAs has been identified, leading to variety of NCAM isoforms (2). Three major NCAM isoforms are: 140 and 180 kDa transmembrane forms (NCAM-140, NCAM-180), and 120 kDa glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked isoform (NCAM120) (3).
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