UBCs are a family of proteins directly involved in ubiquitination of proteins and in the control of cellular processes through the targeting of key regulatory proteins for degradation UBC9 is a homologue of the class E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (UBCs) (1). UBC9 possesses a distinct electrostatic potential distribution that may provide possible clues to its ability to interact with other proteins. It was suggested that different UBCs may utilize catalytic mechanisms of varying efficiency and substrate specificity (2). UBC9 has been shown to catalyze conjugation of a small ubiquitin-like molecule-1 (SUMO-1) to a variety of target proteins. SUMO-1 modifications were implicated in the targeting of proteins to the nuclear envelope and certain intranuclear structures and in converting proteins resistant to ubiquitin-mediated degradation. UBC9 also interacts with the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the steroid receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors. It has the ability to act as an AR co-regulator in a fashion independent of its ability to catalyze SUMO-1 conjugation. (3).
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