Syk, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, belongs to the Syk-Zap70 family of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and is involved in a wide variety of cellular functions including the pathogenesis of malignant cancer (1). Ubiquitously expressed in hematopoietic cells, Syk has been found to be an effector of B cell receptor (BCR) and functions in B & T cell lymphopoiesis. In the absence of Syk, B cell development is blocked (2). Upon binding to the BCR and to the cell surface receptor of hematopoietic cells (3), Syk is activated and phosphorylates Phospholipase C resulting in the downstream activation of ERK & JNK kinase. Syk also phosphorylates PI3-K activating the Akt pathway (4). Cross-linking of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and then activation of Syk, which in turn phosphorylates a multitude of intracellular substrates such as Cbl (5). Syk (pY323) was found to be critical for the enrichment of the catalytic subunit p110delta of PI3K class I(A) as well as for the generation of PI3K products at the leading edge of the majority of polarized cells (6).
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