RCC1, or Regulator of chromosome condensation 1, is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ran GTPase. Localized generation of Ran-GTP by RCC1 on chromatin is critical for nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly, and nuclear envelope formation. Both the N-terminal tail of RCC1 and its association with Ran are important for its interaction with chromatin in cells, demonstrated by RCC1’s ability to bind histones H2A and/or H2B in a Ran-regulated manner (1, 2). RCC1 also binds both to the nucleosomes and double-stranded DNA. The RCC1-Ran complex, together with other proteins, acts as a component of a signal transmission pathway that detects unreplicated DNA (3).
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