Growth associated protein GAP43 (B-50, F1, neuromodulin) is a phosphoprotein of the presynaptic membrane involved in synaptic reorganization and neural development. Phosphorylated at Ser41 by protein kinase C (PKC), phosphorylated GAP43 has been correlated to release of neurotransmitters in the mature nervous system (1). Also, GAP43 plays an essential role in the maintenance mechanism of long-term potentiation (LTP) (2). This suggests GAP43 to play a role in synaptic plasticity. For neurons in development or regeneration, GAP43 is a major component of the growth cone, which enables elongation and navigation of developing axons (3). During periods of low activity in neurons, Calmodulin binds to GAP43 when Ca2+ is low, suggesting Calmodulin as a negative regulator of GAP43 (4).
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