Tools to Investigate SARS-CoV-2 Infection
COVID-19 is caused by the newly discovered coronavirus SARS CoV-2, previously called 2019-nCoV. It belongs to the Coronaviridae family and is broadly distributed in humans and other mammals. hCoV-229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1 are some of the known coronaviruses that cause mild respiratory diseases unlike SAR-CoV and MERS that cause severe to fatal respiratory diseases .
Why is SARS-CoV-2 spreading faster than its two ancestors? Why is SARS-CoV-2 lethal? Recent publications have shown that there are differences in their genome structure and immunological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The key markers involved in these interactions include Spike protein (S), Nucleocapsid (N), ACE-2 receptor, FURIN protease in addition to the cytokines.
Spike Protein (S): SARS-CoV2 enters the cells through the Spike mediated interaction with the ECD domain of the ACE2 cell receptor. A recombinant fusion protein (RBD of Spike protein and ECD of membrane protein) can a great tool to investigate this interaction.
Learn more about the purified recombinant Spike Protein (S).
Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2): This is a serine protease that cleaves and activates the viral spike glycoproteins which facilitates virus-cell membrane fusions. A recent study showed that SARS-CoV-2 needs both ACE2 receptor and serine protease TMPRSS2 for protein priming to enter the cell.
Tools for analyzing TMPRSS2
Nucleocapsid: The nucleocapsid phosphoprotein packages the viral genome into a helical ribonucelocapsid, thus playing a crucial role in viral self-assembly.
Tools for analyzing the Nucleocapsid
ACE-2 receptor: ACE-2 is the host cell receptor responsible for mediating infection by SARS-CoV-2.
Tools for analyzing ACE-2 protein
- Human Recombinant Protein Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE2)
- ACE-2 specific Mouse Monoclonal Antibody
- ACE-2 Human ORF clones
Find out more about the additional ACE-2 specific tools here
Furin: It is a protease present in many human organs that recognizes and activates a specific site on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, thus facilitating a tighter binding to the ACE-2 receptor and might play a role in the higher infection rate .
How can you analyze Furin? Learn about the tools for analyzing Furin.