Summary: Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and PC cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual actions on cell growth. Granulin family members are important in normal development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].
These shRNA constructs were designed against multiple splice variants at this gene locus. To be certain that your variant of interest is targeted, align it with our published shRNA design sequences. If these do not align, please utilize our custom shRNA service.
OriGene guarantees that the sequences in the shRNA expression cassettes are verified to correspond to the target gene with 100% identity. One of the four constructs at minimum are guaranteed to produce 70% or more gene expression knock-down provided a minimum transfection efficiency of 80% is achieved. Western Blot data is recommended over qPCR to evaluate the silencing effect of the shRNA constructs 72 hrs post transfection. To properly assess knockdown, the gene expression level from the included scramble control vector must be used in comparison with the target-specific shRNA transfected samples.
For non-conforming shRNA, requests for replacement product must be made within ninety (90) days from the date of delivery of the shRNA kit. To arrange for a free replacement with newly designed constructs, please contact Technical Services at email@example.com. Please provide your data indicating the transfection efficiency and measurement of gene expression knockdown compared to the scrambled shRNA control (Western Blot data preferred).
* Delivery time in business days.Occasional delay may occur due to complexity of the constructs.
All shRNA Citations:
Mitochondrial damage and cholesterol storage in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells with silencing of UBIAD1 gene expression, Morales, CR;Grigoryeva, LS;Pan, X;Bruno, L;,
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports Sep 2014
[UBIAD1] Transmembrane Domain Targeting Peptide Antagonizing ErbB2/Neu Inhibits Breast Tumor Growth and Metastasis, Arpel, A;Sawma, P;Spenlé, C;Fritz, J;Meyer, L;Garnier, N;Velázquez-Quesada, I;Hussenet, T;Aci-Sèche, S;Baumlin, N;Genest, M;Brasse, D;Hubert, P;Crémel, G;Orend, G;Laquerrière, P;Bagnard, D;,
Cell Rep Sep 2014
[ERBB2] PGC-1a mediates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells to promote metastasis, LeBleu, VS;O'Connell, JT;Gonzalez Herrera, KN;Wikman, H;Pantel, K;Haigis, MC;de Carvalho, FM;Damascena, A;Domingos Chinen, LT;Rocha, RM;Asara, JM;Kalluri, R;,
Nat. Cell Biol. Sep 2014
[PPARGC1A] Leukocyte specific protein-1: A novel regulator of hepatocellular proliferation and migration deleted in human HCC, Koral, K;Paranjpe, S;Bowen, WC;Mars, W;Luo, J;Michalopoulos, GK;,
Hepatology Sep 2014
[ LSP1] Inhibition of tumor-associated avß3 integrin regulates the angiogenic switch by enhancing expression of IGFBP-4 leading to reduced melanoma growth and angiogenesis in vivo, Contois, LW;Akalu, A;Caron, JM;Tweedie, E;Cretu, A;Henderson, T;Liaw, L;Friesel, R;Vary, C;Brooks, PC;,
Angiogenesis Sep 2014
[ITG?3] Pannexin 1 and Pannexin 3 Channels Regulate Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Proliferation and Differentiation, Langlois, S;Xiang, X;Young, K;Cowan, BJ;Penuela, S;Cowan, KN;,
J. Biol. Chem. Sep 2014
[Panx3] TGF-ß1 mediates the radiation response of prostate cancer, Wu, CT;Hsieh, CC;Yen, TC;Chen, WC;Chen, MF;,
J. Mol. Med. Sep 2014
[TGFB1] Beclin-1-p53 interaction is crucial for cell fate determination in embryonal carcinoma cells, Tripathi, R;Ash, D;Shaha, C;,
J. Cell. Mol. Med. Sep 2014
[ATG5] Beclin-1-p53 interaction is crucial for cell fate determination in embryonal carcinoma cells, Tripathi, R;Ash, D;Shaha, C;,
J. Cell. Mol. Med. Sep 2014
[BECN1] Bile Acids Regulate Nuclear Receptor (Nur77) Expression and Intracellular Location to Control Proliferation and Apoptosis, Hu, Y;Chau, T;Liu, HX;Liao, D;Keane, R;Nie, Y;Yang, H;Wan, YJ;,
Mol. Cancer Res. Sep 2014
* Delivery time is an estimate in business days. Occasional delays may occur due to unforeseen complexities in the preparation of your construct. International customers may expect an additional 1-2 weeks in shipping