Y-box-binding protein 1 (YBOX1, YBX1, YB-1) belongs to highly conserved Y-box protein family, a group of multifunctional gene regulators with cold shock domain (1). Targeting single stranded DNA and RNA, YB-1 regulates both translation and transcription in various genes. The expression of HLA class II genes is regulated by a series of cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors. As a cis-acting element, the Y-Box contains an inverted CCAAT box. An inverse correlation of YB-1 and HLA-DR beta chain mRNA levels suggests that YB-1 is a negative regulatory factor (2). Over-expression of YB-1 resulted in increased levels of PTP1B. Furthermore, depletion of YB-1 protein, by expression of a specific antisense construct, led to an approximately 70% decrease in expression of PTP1B, but no change in the level of its closest relative, TC-PTP. Data reveal an important role for YB-1 as a regulator of PTP1B expression, and further highlight PTP1B as a critical regulator of insulin- and cytokine-mediated signal transduction (3). Also, YB-1 has been implicated to activation of genes linked to cancer (e.g. cyclin A/B1, MMP-2, and MDR1) (4). However, it is shown to repress apoptosis related genes (e.g. p53 tumor suppressor) (5). YB-1 promotes separation of DNA strands that contains mismatches or is modified by cisplatin. Thus, YB-1 has been linked to possible role in DNA repair.
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