Human DNA-binding proteins, dbpA and dbpB (YBOX-1), are members of a protein family containing a cold-shock domain, and are regarded as transcriptional regulators (1). The expression of HLA class II genes is regulated by a series of cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors. Several cis-acting elements have been identified and have been termed the Z box, X box, Y box, octamer, and "TATA" box. The Y box contains an inverted CCAAT box. An inverse correlation of YB-1 and HLA-DR beta chain mRNA levels suggests that YB-1 is a negative regulatory factor (2). Overexpression of YB-1 resulted in increased levels of PTP1B. Furthermore, depletion of YB-1 protein, by expression of a specific antisense construct, led to an approximately 70% decrease in expression of PTP1B, but no change in the level of its closest relative, TC-PTP. Data reveal an important role for YB-1 as a regulator of PTP1B expression, and further highlight PTP1B as a critical regulator of insulin- and cytokine-mediated signal transduction (3).
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