JNK protein kinases are distantly related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERKs) and are activated by dual phosphorylation on Tyr and Thr. The JNK protein kinase group includes the 46-kDa isoform JNK1 and the 55-kDa protein kinase JNK2. The activities of both JNK isoforms are markedly increased by exposure of cells to UV radiation (1). JNK becomes activated in vivo in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines or cellular stresses. Its full activation requires the phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in a Thr-Pro-Tyr motif, which can be catalysed by the protein kinases mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MKK4 and MKK7 (2). JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells (3).
MAPK signaling pathway
TGF Beta Signaling Pathway
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
Wnt Signaling Pathway
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