IDE is a zinc metallopeptidase that degrades intracellular insulin, and thereby terminates insulins activity, as well as participating in intercellular peptide signalling by degrading diverse peptides such as glucagon, amylin, bradykinin, and kallidin. The preferential affinity of this enzyme for insulin results in insulin-mediated inhibition of the degradation of other peptides such as beta-amyloid. Deficiencies in IDE's function are associated with Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but mutations in IDE have not been shown to be causative for these diseases. It localizes primarily in the cytoplasm, but in some cell types it localizes to the extracellular space, cell membrane, peroxisome, and mitochondrion (1).
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