Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, also called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, is a 42-amino acid polypeptide synthesized by K cells of the duodenum and small intestine. It was originally identified as an activity in gut extracts that inhibited gastric acid secretion and gastrin release, but subsequently was demonstrated to stimulate insulin release potently in the presence of elevated glucose. The insulinotropic effect on pancreatic islet beta-cells was then recognized to be the principal physiologic action of GIPR. Together with glucagon-like peptide-1, GIPR is largely responsible for the secretion of insulin after eating. It is involved in several other facets of the anabolic response (1).
Signaling by GPCR
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