Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids, and it accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver. Insulin is a heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds (1). It is synthesized in the beta cell of the pancreas as the precursor, proinsulin, where the carboxyl terminus of the B-chain is connected to the amino terminus of the A-chain by a C-peptide (2). Defects in insulin results in diabetes mellitus (1).
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