PSMA (Prostate-specific membrane antigen, Glutamate carboxypeptidase 2) is a membrane peptidase expressed in the prostate, central and peripheral nervous system, kidney, and small intestine (1). PSMA has both folate hydrolase and N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase) activity. It is required in the intestine for the uptake of folate, and in the brain it modulates excitatory neurotransmission through the hydrolysis of the neuropeptide N-acetylaspartylglutamate, thereby releasing glutamate (2). In the central nervous system, it is responsible for the cleavage of N-acetyl- L-aspartyl-L-glutamate yielding free glutamate in the synaptic cleft, and is implicated in various pathologic conditions associated with glutamate excitotoxicity (1). PSMA also has abundant and restricted expression on the surface of prostate carcinomas and the neovasculature of most other solid tumors, making it a target for cancer immunotherapy (3).
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