Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA polymerase accessory factor that is required for DNA replication during S phase of the cell cycle and for resynthesis during nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. PCNA acts as a homotrimer and helps increase the processivity of leading strand synthesis during DNA replication. In response to DNA damage, this protein is ubiquitinated and is involved in the RAD6-dependent DNA repair pathway (1). The ubiquitination of PCNA is an essential event in the operation of the DNA Damage Tolerance (DDT) pathway that is activated after DNA damage caused by UV or chemical agents during S-phase (2).
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