Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein that plays essential roles in nucleic acid metabolism, including DNA replication, nucleotide excision repair, and homologous recombination. It is a complex of three polypeptides of molecular mass 70, 32, and 14 kDa (RPA70, RPA32, and RPA14). RPA is a phosphorylation target for DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and likely the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM) protein kinase. The middle subunit, RPA32, is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, which begins in parallel to the degradation of DNA to high molecular weight fragments; it slowly continues until late apoptosis. RPA32 has been reported to be a useful prognostic indicator in colon cancer patients and an attractive therapeutic target for regulation by tumor suppressors or other proteins involved in the control of cell proliferation (4).
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