Hmgb3 belongs to the high mobility group (HMG) protein superfamily. It contains DNA-binding HMG box domains and is thought to play a fundamental role in DNA replication, nucleosome assembly and transcription (1). Hmgb3 is a sequence-independent chromatin-binding protein that is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (2). It can alter the DNA structure to facilitate transcription factor binding. Enforced expression of Hmgb3 inhibits B-cell and myeloid differentiation; thus, down-regulation of Hmgb3 protein levels has been concluded to be an important step for myeloid and B-cell differentiation (3). Hmgb3 deficiency possibly leads to a failure of hematopoietic stem cells to expand into normal numbers of common lymphoid and myeloid progenitors. Hmgb3 progenitors attain the ability to expand rapidly and differentiate into normal numbers of hematopoietic cells (4).
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