The human paired box protein Pax-5 (PAX5) is a member of the paired box domain family of transcription factors that play a role in B-cell differentiation, neural development, and spermatogenesis (1). As a result, its expression is detected in the developing central nervous system (CNS) and testis (1). In particular, PAX5 is essential for maintaining the identity and function of mature B cells during late B lymphopoiesis (2). The PAX5 gene encodes the B-cell lineage specific activator protein (BSAP) that is expressed at early, but not late stages of B-cell differentiation (3). During B-cell differentiation, PAX5 interacts with DAXX, a bridge protein that helps PAX5 to function as both a transcriptional activator and a repressor (4). A chromosomal aberration involving PAX5 is a cause of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (1).
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