Stat-1 is a latent transcription factor that functions both as a signal transducer in the cytoplasm and an activator of transcription in the nucleus. Stat-1 is one of seven members of the Signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT) family (1). Stat-1 is activated by a large number of ligands: IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, EGF, PDGF and IL6 (2-3). IFN-gamma signaling induces phosphorylation of the Stat-1 residue Tyrosine 701, which facilitates dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding (4). Upon tyrosine phosphorylation, Stat-1 dimerizes with Stat-2 and associates with ISGF3/IR9 to form a complex called the ISGF3 transcription factor (5). This activation subsequently allows the complex to translocate to the nucleus and bind specific enhancer elements. Additional complexes can form upon IFN stimulation (1). Defects in Stat-1 are the cause of Stat-1 deficiency, characterized by mycobacterial or viral diseases (6).
EGFR1 Signaling Pathway
Jak-STAT signaling pathway
TGF Beta Signaling Pathway
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
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