The CDKN2A locus gives rise to 2 distinct transcripts from different promoters. The transcripts have been designated p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF). This chromosomal region undergoes a number of inversions, translocations, heterozygous deletions, and homozygous deletions in a variety of malignant cell lines including those from glioma, non-small cell lung cancer, leukemia, and melanoma. Deletion of the region containing CDKN2A is found in more than half of all melanoma cell lines. Conversely, transfection of CDKN2A suppressed the growth of two independent mesothelioma cell lines, suggesting that inactivation of the CDKN2 gene is an essential step in the etiology of malignant mesotheliomas. CDKN2A induces a G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the Rb protein by the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. CDKN2A is expressed as at least three distinct isoforms.
Senescence and Autophagy
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