The Na+/H+ antiporter (Nhe-1) is a ubiquitous membrane-bound enzyme involved in pH regulation of vertebrate cells and is specifically inhibited by the diuretic drug amiloride and activated by a variety of signals including growth factors, mitogens, neurotransmitters, and tumor promoters. Nhe-1 acts as an anchor for actin filaments to control the integrity of the cortical cytoskeleton. This occurs through a previously unrecognized structural link between Nhe-1 and the actin-binding proteins ezrin, radixin, and moesin, collectively referred to as ERM proteins. A structural role for Nhe-1 has been proposed in regulating the cortical cytoskeleton that is independent of its function as an ion exchanger. It is also thought that Nhe-1 play a role in hypertension. At least two isoforms of Nhe-1 are known to exist.
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