Interferons (IFN)s are involved in a multitude of immune interactions during viral infections and play a major role in both the induction and regulation of innate and adaptive antiviral mechanisms (1 for review). During infection, host-virus interactions signal downstream molecules such as transcription factors such as IFN regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) which can act to stimulate transcription of IFN-alpha/beta genes. Unlike IRF3, IRF8 appears to act as a negative regulator of IFN-induced genes in most cases (2,3), but IRF8 mediates activation of NF-kappaB by the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) after stimulation by unmethylated CpG DNA in dendritic cells (4,5). Finally, it has been shown that IRF8 decreases bcl-2 expression and thus may play a role in chronic myelogenous leukemia (6).
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
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