DJ-1 is ubiquitously expressed in various human tissues, and expression is induced by growth stimuli. Moreover, DJ-1 translocates from cytoplasm to nuclei in the S phase of the cell cycle. DJ-1 is thus suggested to be a novel mitogen-dependent oncogene product involved in a Ras-related signal transduction pathway (1). DJ-1 was first identified as a novel candidate of the oncogene product that transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with an activated ras. Later DJ-1 was also found to be an infertility-related protein that was reduced in rat sperm treated with sperm toxicants that cause infertility in rats. Results of further tests indicate that DJ-1 is a positive regulator of the androgen receptor (2). Mutations in a gene on chromosome 1, DJ-1, have been reported recently to be associated with recessive, earlyonset Parkinson's disease. The L166P mutation has the simple effect of promoting DJ-1 degradation, thereby reducing net DJ-1 protein within the cell (3).
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