?-catenin is a key regulatory protein involved in cell adhesion and signal transduction through the Wnt pathway, and plays important roles in development, cellular proliferation, and differentiation (1). -catenin is phosphorylated at four serine and threonine residues at the N-terminus (2). Ser 45 is phosphorylated by CK1, and is thought to be a priming site for the phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) of the remaining three residues, Thr 41, Ser 37, and Ser 33 (2). Wnt signaling antagonizes the action of GSK-3, which in subsequent phosphorylation steps, leads to its degradation (3). Mutations in the -catenin gene, CTNNB1, have been implicated in its accumulation and various forms of carcinomas (4).
TGF Beta Signaling Pathway
Wnt Signaling Pathway
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