Glycogen synthases kinase 3 alpha (GSK3-?) is a multifunctional Serine/Threonine protein kinase, one of two isoforms of GSK3 (1). Originally identified as a regulator of glycogen synthase, it has been shown to be involved in the hormonal control of several regulatory factors and transcription factors. GSK3-? activity is down regulated by phosphorylation on Serine 21 by PKB, or activated by phosphorylation on Tyrosine 279 (2). Insulin inactivates GSK3-? by rapid phosphorylation which leads to activation of Glycogen Synthase in the cells (3). GSK3-? activitiy has been linked to a pathogenic mechanism in Alzheimer's disease (4). GSK3 beta) plays a key role in insulin and Wnt signaling, phosphorylating downstream targets by default, and becoming inhibited following the extracellular signaling event (5).
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