Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor proteins (Smurf1 and Smurf2) are E3 ubiquitin ligase that belongs to the Hect family. Smurf proteins play an important role as regulators in TGF-beta pathway by ubiquitinating Smads and Smads associated proteins for proteasome degradation (1). Specifically, Smurf1 interacts with Smad1 and Smad5 for degradation, while Smurf2 ubiquitinates Smad1 and Smad2. Smads also functions to recruit Smurfs to various pathway components such as TGF-beta and SnoN. In particular, Smad7 acts as an adaptor protein between Smurfs and TGF-Beta receptors, allowing the receptors to be marked by Smurfs for degradation (2). Smurf2 interacts with all members of Smad family except for Smad4 and it is expressed various tissues and cell lines, such as placenta and ovarian cancer cell lines. Smurf2 has been implicated in the tumor formation and diseases progression (3).
TGF Beta Signaling Pathway
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