SUMO proteins and ubiquitin posttranslationally modify numerous cellular proteins and affect their metabolism and function. However, unlike ubiquitination, which targets proteins for degradation, sumoylation participates in a number of cellular processes, such as nuclear transport, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, and protein stability (1). SUMO-2/3 is a ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to target lysines either as a monomer or as a lysine-linked polymer (2). Covalent attachment to its substrates requires prior activation by the E1 complex SAE1-SAE2 and linkage to the E2 enzyme UBE2I; it can be promoted by an E3 ligase (2). Moreover, SUMO-2/3 is expressed predominantly in the liver (2).
Wnt Signaling Pathway
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