Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are signaling molecules that recognize different microbial products during infection and serve as an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. SARM (SAM and ARM-containing protein), along with other molecules such as TIRP, TRIF, TIRAP, and MyD88, is thought to serve as an adaptor protein for the TLRs that allows for the activation of downstream kinases and NF-kappaB, and ultimately the expression of proteins involved in host defense. While SARM has not been conclusively shown to associate directly with TLRs, the presence of a Toll-interluekin-1 (TIR) domain in SARM is consistent with a role as a signaling molecule.
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