Apoptosis is regulated by death domain (DD) and/or caspase recruitment domain (CARD) containing molecules and a caspase family of proteases. CARD containing cell death regulators include RAIDD, RICK, BCL10, Apaf-1, ARC, caspase-9, and caspase-2. A novel CARD domain containing protein was recently identified in human and mouse and designated ASC and TMS1 (1-3). Ectopic expression of ASC/TMS1 induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-9 and inhibited the survival of human breast cancer cells (3,4). Overexpression of ASC/TMS1 induced DNA fragmentation (4). ASC/TMS1 is expressed in a variety of human and mouse tissues (1, 2)
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