Interferons (IFNs) plays a crucial role in antiviral, antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, antitumor, and antiparasitic activities by inducing transcription of IFN-stimuated genes (ISGs) through activation of the Jak-STAT pathway. In particular, Interferon gamma (IFN-?), a sole member of Type II IFN family, is involved in the lymphocyte activation and the regulation of lymphocyte subsets (proliferation, differentiation) (1). IFN-? is expressed in activated CD4 Th1 cells, CD8 cells, gamma/delta T cells, and activated NK cells. IFN-? expression is induced by IL-2, TNF-a and IL-12 and suppressed by IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-ß (2). IFN-? binds to IFN-? receptor (IFNGR) which stimulates various immuno-responses, such as macrophages activation and enhancement of the type I IFNs anti-viral and anti-tumor activities. In immunocompetent host cells, IFN-? protects against tumor development and directs immunogenic phenotype (3). IFN-? has been implicated various human diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (4).
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
Jak-STAT signaling pathway
Senescence and Autophagy
TGF Beta Signaling Pathway
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