GFAT1 is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine pathway and controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine pathway. It catalyzes the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate (1). The GFAT-mediated amino sugar pathway has been shown to be involved in the desensitization of adipocytes to insulin by glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (2). It is most likely involved in regulating the availability of precursors for N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins (3).
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