Human chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) belongs to the glycoprotein hormone family that includes the beta subunit of lutenizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (1). These hormones are central to the endocrine system that regulates normal growth, sexual development, and reproductive function (2). HCG primarily maintains the myometrial and decidual spiral arteries, or the vascular supply of the placenta during the full course of pregnancy (3). It is mainly secreted by the endocrine villous cytotrophoblasts into the maternal compartment and stimulates the formation of the syncytiotrophoblast in an autocrine manner (4). Then HCG binds to the corpus luteum of the ovary, which is stimulated to produce progesterone and maintain the secretory endometrium (5). CGB confers biological specificity, whereas the alpha subunit of HCG is common to all glycoprotein hormones (1).
Signaling by GPCR
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