Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (CDK-interacting protein 1, p21, CDKN1A, WAF1) plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA damage, and its overexpression results in cell cycle arrest (1). p21 binds to and inhibits CDK activity, preventing phosphorylation of critical CDK substrates and blocking cell cycle progression. p21 is suggested to possibly be the important intermediate by which p53 mediates its role as an inhibitor of cellular proliferation in response to DNA damage (2). Endogenous cellular p21 is shown to be completely acetylated at its amino terminus and is therefore not a substrate for N-ubiquitylation (3). Phosphorylation of Threonine 144 by Akt or of Serine 145 by PKC impairs p21 binding to PCNA (2).
Senescence and Autophagy
TGF Beta Signaling Pathway
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