Autophagy is a process of bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components by the lysosome or vacuole (1). Atg3 is an E2-like enzyme involved in autophagy and mitochondrial homeostasis. It catalyzes the conjugation of Atg8-like proteins to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which is essential to autophagy. Atg3 also acts as an autocatalytic E2-like enzyme, catalyzing the conjugation of Atg12 to itself; Atg12 conjugation to Atg3 plays a role in mitochondrial homeostasis but not in autophagy. Atg7 (E1-like enzyme) facilitates this reaction by forming an E1-E2 complex with Atg3 (2).
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