ATF-1 is a cAMP-responsive enhancer (CRE) binding protein that is expressed in a wide variety of cell types and is capable of dimerizing with CREB. ATF-1 contains a consensus phosphorylation site for PKA and shares extensive homology with CREB in the region surrounding and carboxyl-terminal to the PKA site (1). Epidermal growth factor induction of c-jun expression requires ATF-1 and MEF2 sites in the c-jun promoter. Activation of the c-jun promoter through the ATF-1 site requires phosphorylation of ATF-1 at serine 63. Two MAPK pathways, ERK and JNK, are required for EGF-induced c-jun expression and the ERK pathway acts through downstream phosphorylation of ATF-1 (2).
EGFR1 Signaling Pathway
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